* awl: a fine, pointed metal tool that is very useful for distributing gathers and pushing out corners.

* bagging: sewing technique used when assembling two same shaped pieces (reversible or lined) with s. allowances inside without topstitching.

* baste: long running stitches to temporarily hold garment pieces together

* clip corners = snip...off: after assembling two pieces, remove extra fabric either by reducing the seam allowance by half for a curve or cutting the seam allowance diagonally for a corner.

* create notches: after stitching two pieces together, small V-shaped slots are cut at regular intervals in the seam allowance, for greater flexibility in a curve, such as a neckline, collar, armhole, etc.

* cut size: size of the piece including s.allowance.

* cutting layout: a miniature drawing showing the layout of all pieces to be cut from the same piece of cloth, for optimal use of fabric without waste.

* ease: difference in length between two lines that will be assembled. The extra fabric adds a lovely curve to the longer line, particularly to a sleeve cap. When assembling, use a gathering thread and meticulous pinning to absorb extra fabric from the longer line without making folds or gathers.* finish a seam with a bias tape: to enclose a seam allowance with a strip of fabric. Allows a clean finish.

* finished size:  Finished size of the piece without s.allowance corresponding  to the seam lines. Finished seam= seam line

* fullness: the extra length of one piece of fabric which is gathered to match the length of a shorter piece, providing a better fit in curved areas.

* gathering (or gathers): a technique for bunching the fabric or creating ruffles. Begin by loosening the thread tension and selecting a very long straight stitch setting. On the right side of the edge to be gathered, stitch 2 parallel gathering threads 5 mm apart: one on the seamline and the other 5 mm away in the seam allowance. Pull simultaneously on both bobbin threads to gather the fabric. During stitching, use an awl* to help distribute the gathers. Another way to create gathers is by applying clear elastic. 

* interface: reinforce a piece of fabric by fusing a separate fabric to the wrong side.

* knit: knitted cloth, which gives it stretch in both directions.

* leftover bulk: the excess fabric arising from creating a dart or a fold.

* lengthwise grain: are the threads going parallel to the selvedge* of the fabric.

* notch: a small cut slot indicating how to position two garment pieces before they are stitched together. A notch indicated on the pattern must be transferred to the fabric by cutting a slot several millimetres long. For a sleeve, there are 2 notches in front and 1 notch in back. 

* on fold: means the fabric must be folded in half, right sides together, with each piece to be cut “on fold” positioned along this centre fold.

* overcast: a row of continuous stitching close to a fabric seam to prevent fraying using a zigzag or 3-thread serger stitch. 

* pintuck seam: seam created 2mm from the edge.

* press a fold: press a fold onto the reverse side of the fabric.

* secure: place a form tape interfacing or stitch on a curved line to avoid deforming fabric either during sewing or after several washes.

* selvedge: the finished edge of fabric on either side of its width.

* sewing gauge:  a small piece of graded cardboard.

* snip...off = clip corners: after assembling two pieces, remove extra fabric either by reducing the seam allowance by half for a curve or cutting the seam allowance diagonally for a corner.

* stitch down: sew a few stitches in the s.allowance in order to keep a layer of fabric in place and stop it from moving.

* stitch in the joining seam: stitch exactly over a former stitched joining seam.

* stretch factor: your fabric  may have a stretch factor even if it does not contain stretchy material. To measure this, cut a 10cm x 10cm square of fabric. Stretch it in the direction of the grain line* and measure its new length. Then apply the formula (y=new length): [(y-10)/10] x 100. This gives you the stretch factor in %.

* understitch: press the seam allowance towards the inside of the garment (facing or lining) and stitch at 2 mm from the edge on the facing/lining side.  This seam will keep the facing/lining securely on the inside of the garment.

* use bias tape: placing bias binding on the edge of a fabric, to create a neat finish.

* warp and weft: cloth formed of two interwoven sets of threads, the warp (vertical) and the weft (horizontal), which gives it a certain stiffness, i.e., no stretch, unless a small percentage of elastic fibres are used. 

* width: the breadth of the fabric between opposite selvedges.